End of the Antibiotic Era? They are more frightened than you think!

So if this is the End of the Antibiotic Era, what are we left with?

This is very bad news for those who are finding themselves in an emergency room and sick because of pathological microbes.

But if you are not in that situation and have been studying about alternative forms of natural antibiotics then you have some options that still can and do work. The key is using the right one for the right things and in the right amounts to be effective.

They should also be used expeditiously. The longer you wait the more difficult it will be and the longer it will take. Always seek a health professional who has this knowledge and can work with you competently. Experience is the key. Having access to a large selections is also key.

Below here are some articles that are as pertinent and germane today and will be tomorrow, as they were from the day they were written.

Be sure to read more on this whole subject in my Free Book on Chronic Illness on the homepage herein on my site. ReeseWellness.com

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Health & Science
CDC says ‘nightmare bacteria’ a growing threat
By Lena H. Sun March 5, 2013

Federal officials warned Tuesday that “nightmare bacteria” — including the deadly superbug that struck a National Institutes of Health facility two years ago — are increasingly resistant to even the strongest antibiotics, posing a growing threat to hospitals and nursing homes nationwide.

Thomas Frieden, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said at a news conference: “It’s not often that our scientists come to me and say we have a very serious problem and we need to sound an alarm. But that’s exactly what we are doing today.”

He called on doctors, hospital leaders and health officials to work together to stop the spread of the infections. “Our strongest antibiotics don’t work, and patients are left with potentially untreatable infections,” he said.

Although the bacteria, known as Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, haven’t spread to the wider community — like some other germs — they are more dangerous, said Frieden, who described them as a “triple threat.”

First, the bacteria are resistant to all or nearly all antibiotics, even those of last resort, he said. Second, they kill up to half of patients who get bloodstream infections from them. And third, the bacteria can transfer their antibiotic resistance to other bacteria within the family, potentially making other bacteria untreatable, as well.

For example, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella, which caused the NIH outbreak, “can spread the genes that destroy our last antibiotics to other bacteria, such as E. coli, and make E. coli resistant to antibiotics also,” Frieden said.

E. coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infections in healthy people.

In 10 years, the percentage of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to antiobiotics increased almost fourfold, to 4.2 percent in 2011 from 1.2 percent in 2001, according to data reported to CDC. And the strain that caused the NIH outbreak has increased sevenfold in the past decade, according to a CDC report issued Tuesday.

During the first half of 2012, almost 200 hospitals and long-term acute-care facilities treated at least one patient infected with these bacteria. The CDC did not have statistics for fatalities.

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Medical research
May 13, 2015

Infant antibiotic use linked to adult diseases

A new study led by researchers at the University of Minnesota has found a three-way link among antibiotic use in infants, changes in the gut bacteria, and disease later in life. The imbalances in gut microbes, called dysbiosis, have been tied to infectious diseases, allergies and other autoimmune disorders, and even obesity, later in life.

The study, led by Biomedical Informatics and Computational Biology program graduate student fellow Pajau Vangay, also developed a predictive model with potential clinical importance for measuring healthy development of bacteria in the gut of young children. The findings were published today in the scientific journal Cell Host & Microbe.

Antibiotics are by far the most common prescription drugs given to children. They account for about one-fourth of all medications prescribed to children, with a third of these prescriptions considered unnecessary. Other studies have shown profound short- and long-term effects of antibiotics on the diversity and composition of the bacteria in our bodies, called our microbiome.

“Diseases related to metabolism and the immune system are increasing dramatically, and in many cases we don’t know why,” said the study’s senior author Dan Knights, a computational biologist and assistant professor in the University of Minnesota’s Department of Computer Science and Engineering and Biotechnology Institute. “Previous studies showed links between antibiotic use and unbalanced gut bacteria, and others showed links between unbalanced gut bacteria and adult disease. Over the past year we synthesized hundreds of studies and found evidence of strong correlations between antibiotic use, changes in gut bacteria, and disease in adulthood.”

Knights and his colleagues developed a framework to map how antibiotics may be acting in the gut to cause disease later in life. In the case of allergies, for example, the use of antibiotics may eradicate key gut bacteria that help immune cells mature. These cells would have been essential for keeping the immune system at bay when confronted with allergens. Even if these bacteria return, the immune system remains impaired. Related to obesity, antibiotic-induced changes in the gut microbiota resulted in increased levels of short-chain fatty acids that affect metabolism.

The study also examined the development of bacteria in the gut. Researchers demonstrated that an infant’s age could be predicted within 1.3 months based on the maturity of their gut bacteria. This finding could lead to a clinical test and interventions for children whose microbiome is developmentally delayed due to antibiotics or other factors.

“We think these findings help develop a roadmap for future research to determine the health consequences of antibiotic use and for recommendations for prescribing them,” Knights said. “The clinical test we demonstrated would also allow us to think about interventions at an early age.”

Explore further: The infant gut microbiome: New studies on its origins and how it’s knocked out of balance
© Medical Xpress 2011-2015, Science X network

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Drug-resistant ‘superbug’ strain of typhoid spreads worldwide
By Kate Kelland

LONDON (Reuters) – An antibiotic-resistant “superbug” strain of typhoid fever has spread globally, driven by a single family of the bacteria, called H58, according to the findings of a large international study.
The research, involving some 74 scientists in almost two dozen countries, is one of the most comprehensive sets of genetic data on a human infectious agent and paints a worrying scene of an “ever-increasing public health threat”, they said.
Typhoid is contracted by drinking or eating contaminated matter and symptoms include nausea, fever, abdominal pain and pink spots on the chest. Untreated, the disease can lead to complications in the gut and head, which may prove fatal in up to 20 percent of patients.
Vaccines are available — although, due to limited cost effectiveness, not widely used in poorer countries — and regular strains of the infection can be treated with antibiotic drugs. However, this study found that the H58 “superbug” version, which is resistant to multiple types of antibiotics, is now becoming dominant.
“H58 is displacing other typhoid strains, completely transforming the genetic architecture of the disease and creating a previously under appreciated and on-going epidemic,” the researchers said in a statement about their findings.
Vanessa Wong of Britain’s Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, who was part of the international team, said that since typhoid affects around 30 million people a year, robust and detailed good global surveillance is critical to trying to contain it.
The research team, whose work was published in the journal Nature Genetics on Monday, sequenced the genomes of 1,832 samples of Salmonella Typhi bacteria that were collected from 63 countries between 1992 and 2013.
They found 47 percent were from the H58 strain.
The team found that H58 emerged in South Asia 25 to 30 years ago and spread to Southeast Asia, Western Asia, East and South Africa and Fiji. They also found evidence of a recent and unreported wave of H58 transmission in many countries in Africa, which may represent an ongoing epidemic.
Kathryn Holt, a scientist at the University of Melbourne in Australia who worked on the study, said multidrug resistant typhoid is caused by the bacteria picking up new resistance genes as disease strains mix and pass from person to person.
Resistance “has been coming and going since the 1970s”, she said, but in the H58 strain, the resistance genes are becoming a stable part of the genome “which means multiple antibiotic resistant typhoid is here to stay”.

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New Superbug’s Genetic Trick Could Help It Spread
LiveScience.com By Sara G. Miller

Health experts are keeping a close eye on a type of antibiotic-resistant bacteria called CRE that, while still rare, has the potential to become more widespread in the United States. This type of bug includes some strains of Escherichia coli and other bacteria.
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A new report released on Thursday said that in the past five years, researchers have identified 43 patients in the United States who became sick with infections from one type of CRE. (The name is an abbreviation for “carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae,” meaning the bacteria are part of a group called Enterobacteriaceae and are resistant to treatment with antibiotics called carbapenems.)

These cases all involved CRE that share a particular method of defeating the antibiotics: they have enzymes called OXA-48-like carbapenemases that break down the drugs, said the report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Other types of CRE have different methods of resisting the antibiotic. [6 Superbugs to Watch Out For]

This particular type of CRE that is the focus of the new report is “noteworthy” because the enzyme that thwarts the antibiotic is encoded on a piece of genetic material called a plasmid, “which can actually move from one bacteria to another,” said Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease specialist and professor of preventive medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee, who was not involved with the CDC report.

At the moment, this whole group of CRE bacteria is of great interest to researchers, Schaffner told Live Science.

Recently, for example, researchers discovered bacteria in China whose plasmids give them resistance to an antibiotic called colistin, he said. Some doctors consider colistin one of the last lines of defense against certain “superbugs.”

The bacteria found in China and the ones in the new report — which both have key resistance genes contained on plasmids — “are of greatest public health concern because of their potential for rapid global dissemination,” the researchers wrote in the new report.

Still, Schaffner stressed that, at the moment, these infections are not something the general public needs to worry about. But microbiologists, public health officials and infectious disease specialists are paying attention, he said.

Researchers have seen a few small clusters of cases around the country, which indicate that the infection likely spread in a hospital, Schaffner said.

In the new report, the CDC researchers noted that many of the patients with this particular type of infection had recently traveled out of the country, with India being the most frequent travel destination. In addition, among the patients who reported traveling abroad, 16 had been hospitalized outside of the United States, the report said, suggesting that foreign hospitals are a potential source of some infections.

The CDC is also tracking infections that come from other types of CRE. For example, there have been 118 cases in the United States of infections involving a certain enzyme, different from the one found in the bacteria that are the focus of Thursday’s report, the CDC said.

Carbapenems are not considered the last line of defense against Enterobacteriaceae infections, meaning that if these drugs don’t work, there are still other antibiotics available. However, the emerging resistance is still concerning to experts. This resistance reduces the number of antibiotics that doctors can use to treat these infections, Schaffner said. Doctors need multiple antibiotics available, and the more options there are, the better, he said.

To reduce the problems associated with antibiotic resistance, doctors and patients need to join together to be more prudent about using antibiotics, Schaffner said.

Follow Sara G. Miller on Twitter @SaraGMiller. Follow Live Science @livescience, Facebook & Google+. Originally published on Live Science.

Now that you are at the bottom may I suggest that you begin to set up your own at home medicine cabinet so you have your natural antibiotics when you need them and not have to wait because you had to order them. Again you will have a start with my book.